Cabeçalho da página

THE ROLE OF THE XAVANTE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

Manrique Prada, Paulo Cipassé Xavante

Resumo

There is an urgent demand to evaluate and document the environmental conditions of the territories of indigenous people. This is basic in the efforts to achieve sustainable development goals adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015. The Xavante people are hunters/gatherers and depend on natural resources for their physical, spiritual, and cultural survival. Their lands are localized in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in a transitional area between the Cerrado vegetation and the Amazon rainforest. They have been developing environmental projects ~in order to manage their territory correctly for decades, as part of their survival strategy. In recent fieldwork, we stated that some major game species may still be abundant in the territory and we suggest that certain wildlife management measures in the past may be responsible for this. We easily registered most game species handled by the Xavantes, except for some edentates that were rarely detected. We confirm the giant anteater as the most vulnerable species to hunting effects. In this article, we point out the main threats for the territory and present new recommendations that may be fundamental for the conservation of biodiversity in the region and the survival of the Xavante people.


Palavras-chave

Brazil; hunting; sustainability; traditional knowledge; wildlife management.


Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


ALMEIDA, F.F.M; HENNIES, W.T. Reconhecimento geológico da Serra do Roncador, Estado de Mato Grosso. Boletim da sociedade brasileira de Geologia, São Paulo, v.18, n.1, p. 23–30, 1969.

BRASIL - Ministério de meio ambiente, Áreas Prioritárias para Conservação da Biodiversidade Brasileira, Brasília, DF, 2017, Available at: http://areasprioritarias.mma.gov.br/. Access in: 28 Jul 2020.

CORRIGAN, C.; BINGHAM, H.; SHI, Y.; LEWIS, E.; CHAUVENET, A.; KINGSTON, N. Quantifying the contribution to biodiversity conservation of protected areas governed by Indigenous peoples and local communities. Biological Conservation, v. 227, p. 403–412, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.09.007. Access in: 03 Sep. 2019.

FRAGOSO, J.M.; SILVIUS, K.M.; PRADA, M. Manejo de Fauna na Reserva Xavante Rio das Mortes, MT: Cultura Indígena e Método Científico Para Conservação. World Wildlife Fund, 2000. 65 p.

FRANÇOSO, R.D.; BRANDÃO, R.; NOGUEIRA, C.C.; SALMONA, Y.B.; MACHADO, R.B.; COLLI, G.R. Habitat loss and the effectiveness of protected areas in the Cerrado Biodiversity Hotspot. Natureza e Conservação, v. 13, n.1, 35–40. 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2015.04.001. Access in: 01 Sep. 2019.

GARNETT, S.T.; BURGESS, N.D.; FA, J.E.; FERNÁNDEZ-LLAMAZARES, Á.; MOLNÁR, Z.; ROBINSON, C.J.; WATSON, J.E.M.; ZANDER, K.K.; AUSTIN, B.; BRONDIZIO, E.S.; COLLIER, N.F.; DUNCAN, T.; ELLIS, E.; GEYLE, H.; JACKSON, M.V.; JONAS, H.; MALMER, P.; MCGOWAN, B.; SIVONGXAY, A.; LEIPER, I. A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation. Nature Sustainability 1: 369–374. 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0100-6. Access in: 03 Oct. 2019.

GRAHAM, L.R. Lessons in Collaboration: The Xavante/WWF Wildlife Management Project in Central Brazil. In: WEBER, R.; BUTLER, J.; LARSON, P. Indigenous Peoples and Conservation Organizations: Experiences in Collaboration. Washington DC: World Wildlife Fund, 2000. p. 47-71.

GRAHAM, L.R. Performing dreams: Discourses of Immortality Among the Xavante of Central Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. 290 p.

LEEUWENBERG, F.; ROBINSON, G. Traditional Management of Hunting by a Xavante Community in Central Brazil: The Search for Sustainability. In: ROBINSON, G.; BENNETT, E.L. Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000. p. 375-394.

MAYBURY-LEWIS, D. A sociedade Xavante. Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Alves, 1984. p.400.

MELO, T.L.; TEJERINA-GARRO, F.L.; MELO, C.E. Diversidade biológica da comunidade de peixes no baixo Rio das Mortes, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 24: 657–665. 2007. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752007000300017. Access in: 01 Dec. 2020.

MYERS, N; MITTERMELER, A. R.; MITTERMELER, C. G.; FONSECA, G.B.A.; KENT, J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, London, v. 403, n. 6772, p. 853-858, 2000.

NOGUEIRA, C.; COLLI, G.; COSTA, G.; MACHADO, R. Diversidade de répteis Squamata e evolução do conhecimento faunístico no Cerrado. In: DINIZ, I.R.; MARINHO-FILHO, J.; MACHADO, R.B.; CAVALCANTI, R.B. Cerrado Conhecimento Científico Quantitativo Como Subsídio Para Ações de Conservação. Brasília: Thesaurus, 2010. p. 333-375.

PRADA, M. Effects of fire on the abundance of large mammalian herbivores in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mammalia, Paris, v. 65, n.1, p. 55–62, 2001.

PRADA, M.; MARINHO‐FILHO, J. Effects of fire on the abundance of Xenarthrans in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Austral ecology, Windsor, v. 29, n.5, p. 568–573, 2004.

QI, J.; HOLYOAK, M.; NING, Y.; JIANG, G. Ecological thresholds and large carnivores conservation: Implications for the Amur tiger and leopard in China. Global Ecology and Conservation. 2020. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00837. Access in: 23 Feb. 2020.

SCHUSTER, R.; GERMAIN, R.R.; BENNETT, J.R.; REO, N.J.; ARCESE, P. Vertebrate biodiversity on indigenous-managed lands in Australia, Brazil, and Canada equals that in protected areas. Environmental Science and Policy. v. 101, p. 1–6. 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2019.07.002. Access in: 23 Feb. 2020.

SIASI/SESAI - Povos Indígenas no Brasil, Brasília, 2014, Available at: https://pib.socioambiental.org/pt/. Quadro Geral dos Povos. Access in: 24 Apr. 2020.

SICK, H. Ornitologia brasileira: uma introdução. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília, 1985. 862 p.

THIEDE, B.C.; GRAY, C. Characterizing the indigenous forest peoples of Latin America: Results from census data. World Development, v. 125, p. 104685, 2020. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104685. Access in: 19 Mar. 2020.

WELCH, J.R. Learning to Hunt by Tending the Fire: Xavante Youth, Ethnoecology, and Ceremony in Central Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology v. 35, n.1, p. 183–208. 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2993/0278-0771-35.1.183. Access in: 20 Mar. 2020.

WELCH, J.R. Xavante Ritual Hunting: Anthropogenic Fire, Reciprocity, and Collective Landscape Management in the Brazilian Cerrado. Human Ecology, v. 42, n.1, p. 47–59. 2014. Available at: https://10.1007/s10745-013-9637-1. Access in: 22 Mar. 2020.

WELCH, J.R.; BRONDÍZIO, E.S.; HETRICK, S.S.; COIMBRA, C.E. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil. PLoS One, v. 8, n. 12, p. e81226. 2013a. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081226. Access in: 22 Mar. 2020.

WELCH, J.R.; SANTOS, R.V.; FLOWERS, N.M.; COIMBRA, C.E.A. Na primeira margem do rio: território e ecologia do Povo Xavante de Wedezé. Rio de Janeiro: Museu do Índio/FUNAI, 2013b. 210 p.

WELCH, J.R.; COIMBRA, C.E. Indigenous fire ecologies, restoration, and territorial sovereignty in the Brazilian Cerrado: The case of two Xavante reserves. Land Use Policy, p. 104055, 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104055. Access in: 20 Mar. 2020.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18542/ethnoscientia.v6i3.10518

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2021 Ethnoscientia: Revista Brasileira de Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia

             

ISSN 2448-1998